Alkalis (Na2O, K2O) – The alkalis value of the coking coal is to be controlled and it is to be limited to 2% maximum in coal ash. High alkali content is not desirable in BF. It also affects the lining of the blast furnace adversely.
Anthracite – A hard, black lustrous coal containing a high percentage of fixed carbon and a low percentage of volatile matter. Commonly referred to as hard coal. Anthracite ignites with difficulty, produces no smoke, burns at first with a very short blue flame that disappears after the coal is thoroughly ignited, and produces an intensely hot fire.
Ash– Ash in coking coal is normally limited to 10% maximum in air-dried condition. High ash content in coking coal reduces productivity and increases coke rate in the blast furnace.
Ash Fusion Temperature (AFT) – Ash Fusion Temperature in coking coal is to be higher than coking temperature. AFT value in the coking coals should be 1450ºC minimum.
Assigned Reserves– Coal which has been committed by the coal company to operating mine shafts, mining equipment, and plant facilities, and all coal which has been leased by the company to others.
Auger– A rotary drill that uses a screw device to penetrate, break, and then transport the drilled material (coal).
Belt Conveyors – A moving endless belt that rides on rollers and on which coal or other materials can be carried for various distances.
Bench – The horizontal step or floor along which coal, ore, stone, or overburden is worked or quarried. In tunnel excavation, where a top heading is driven, the bench is the mass of rock left, extending from about the spring line to the bottom of the tunnel.
Bill Of Lading (B/L)– Document serving three functions: (1) receipt for cargo prepared by the shipper and signed by the carrier; (2) ‘document of title’ to the cargo i.e. proof of ownership; and (3) provides evidence of terms and conditions of the contract of carriage of cargo by sea.
Bituminous Coal– The most common type of coal with moisture content less than 20% by weight and heating value of 10,500 to 14,000 Btu per pound. It is dense and black and often has well-defined bands of bright and dull material.
Blast – The operation of blasting, or rending rock or earth by means of explosives.
Block Coal – A bituminous coal that breaks into large lumps or cubical blocks; also, coal passing over certain sized screens instead of through them, such as a 5-, 6-, and 8-inch block.
Bone Coal – Coal with a high ash content, almost rock.
Brokerage-The remuneration for brokers’ time and effort in negotiating the Charter Party (qv); expressed as a % of freight or hire payment received by shipowner.
Brown Coal – A low-rank coal which is brown, brownish-black, but rarely black. It commonly retains the structures of the original wood. It is high in moisture, low in heat value, and checks badly upon drying.
Btu– (British Thermal Unit). A measure of the energy required to raise the temperature of one pound of water one degree Fahrenheit.
Bucket – A vessel (as a tub or scoop) for hoisting and conveying material (as coal, ore, grain, gravel, mud, or concrete). A part of an excavator that digs, lifts, and carries dirt.
Bulldozer (Dozer) – A highly versatile piece of earth excavating and moving equipment especially useful in land clearing and leveling work, in stripping topsoil, in road building and ramp building and in floor or bench cleanup and gathering operations.
C & F / CFR– Cost and Freight – method of selling cargo where the seller pays for loading costs and ocean freight.
Central Appalachia– Coal producing states and regions of eastern Kentucky, eastern Tennessee, western Virginia and southern West Virginia.
CIF – Cost, Insurance, and Freight – method of selling cargo where the seller pays for loading costs, ocean freight, and insurance.
Coal – A solid, brittle, more or less distinctly stratified combustible carbonaceous rock, formed by partial to complete decomposition of vegetation; varies in color from dark brown to black; not fusible without decomposition and very insoluble.
Coal Mine – An area of land and all structures, facilities, machinery, tools, equipment, shafts, slopes, tunnels, excavations, and other property, real or personal, placed upon, under, or above the surface of such land by any person, used in extracting coal from its natural deposits in the earth by any means or method, and the work of preparing the coal so extracted, including coal preparation facilities. British term is “colliery”.
Coal Reserves – Measured tonnages of coal that have been calculated to occur in a coal seam within a particular property.
Coal Seam– Coal deposits occur in layers. Each layer is called a “seam.”.
Coal Washing– The process of removing impurities, such as ash and sulfur based compounds, from coal.
Coke – A hard, dry carbon substance produced by heating coal to a very high temperature in the absence of air.
Compliance Coal– Coal which, when burned, emits 1.2 pounds or less of sulfur dioxide per million Btu, which is equivalent to .72% sulfur per pound of 12,000 Btu coal. Compliance coal requires no mixing with other coals or use of sulfur dioxide reduction technologies by generators of electricity to comply with the requirements of the federal Clean Air Act.
Continuous Miner– A machine used in underground mining to cut coal from the seam and load it onto conveyors or into shuttle cars in a continuous operation.
Continuous Mining– One of two major underground mining methods now used in the United States. This process utilizes a continuous miner. The continuous miner removes or “cuts” the coal from the seam. The loosened coal then falls on a conveyor for removal to a shuttle car or larger conveyor belt system.
Conventional Mining – The first fully-mechanized underground mining method involving the insertion of explosives in a coal seam, the blasting of the seam, and the removal of the coal onto a conveyor or shuttle car by a loading machine.
Core Drill – A drilling machine equipped with a hollow bit (core bit) and a core barrel which by rotation cuts out and recovers a rock core sample. A drill that removes a cylindrical core from the drill hole.
Core Sample – A cylinder sample generally 1-5″ in diameter drilled out of an area to determine the geologic and chemical analysis of the overburden and coal.
Crop Coal – Coal at the outcrop of the seam. It is usually considered of inferior quality due to partial oxidation, although this is not always the case.
Crucible Swelling Number (CSN) – The desirable range of CSN in coking coals is 3 minimum to 6 maximum. CSN in the prime coking coals is higher while CSN in soft coking coals is lower.
Deep Mine– An underground coal mine.
Demurrage – Financial compensation paid by charterer to the vessel for delays after the laytime has expired at the load/discharge port.
Dozer And Front-End Loader Mining– An open-cast method of mining that uses large dozers together with trucks and loaders to remove overburden, which is used to backfill pits after coal removal.
Dragline – A type of excavating equipment which casts a rope-hung bucket a considerable distance, collects the dug material by pulling the bucket toward itself on the ground with a second rope, elevates the bucket, and dumps the material on a spoil bank, in a hopper, or on a pile.
Drill – Any cutting tool or form of apparatus using energy in any one of several forms to produce a circular hole in rock, metal, wood, or other material.
Exhaust Fan – A fan which sucks used air from a mine and thereby causes fresh air to enter by separate entries to repeat the cycle.
Exploration – The search for mineral deposits and the work done to prove or establish the extent of a mineral deposit. Alt: Prospecting and subsequent evaluation.
Explosive – Any rapidly combustive or expanding substance. The energy released during this rapid combustion or expansion can be used to break rock.
Face – The exposed area of a coal bed from which coal is being extracted.
Fault – A break in the continuity of a body of rock. It is accompanied by a movement on one side of the break or the other so that what were once parts of one continuous rock stratum or vein are now separated.
Ferrosilicon– An alloy of iron and silicon used in the production of carbon steel.
Fines – In general, the smallest particles of coal or mineral in any classification, process, or sample of the run-of-mine material.
Fluidity (Plasticity) – In mineral transport, term not confined to liquids and slurries, but also used for finely divided solids which flow readily in air currents, fluosolids reactors, or through dry ball mills.
FOB – Free On Board – method of selling cargo excluding ocean freight and insurance, but including loading costs.
Force Majeure– An event that may prevent the company from conducting its mining operations as a result of in whole or in part by: Acts of God, wars, riots, fires, explosions, breakdowns or accidents; strikes, lockouts or other labor difficulties; lack or shortages of labor, materials, utilities, energy sources, compliance with governmental rules, regulations or other governmental requirements; any other like causes.
Front End Loader – A tractor loader with a digging bucket mounted and operated at the front end of the tractor. A tractor loader that both digs and dumps in front.
Gray King Coke Type – The value of the Gray King in coking coals is normally G 5 minimum. In the case of soft coking coal, the limit of Gray king value is G min.
High Vol Met Coal– Coal that averages approximately 35% volatile matter. Volatile matter refers to a constituent that becomes gaseous when heated to certain temperatures.
Highwall Miner– An auger-like apparatus that drives parallel rectangular entries to 1,000 feet into the coal seam.
Industrial Coal– Coal used by industrial steam boilers to produce electricity or process steam. It generally is lower in Btu heat content and higher in the volatile matter than metallurgical coal.
Lignite – A brownish-black coal in which the alteration of vegetal material has proceeded further than in peat but not so far as subbituminous coal.
Loader – A mechanical shovel or other machines for loading coal, ore, mineral, or rock.
Loading Machine – A machine for loading materials such as coal, ore, or rock into cars or other means of conveyance for transportation to the surface of the mine.
Loading Ramp – A surface structure, often incorporating storage bins, used for gravity loading bulk material into transport vehicles.
Locomotive – An electric engine, either operating from current supplied from trolley and track or from storage batteries carried on the locomotive.
Long-Term Contracts– Contracts with terms of one year or longer.
Longwall – The coal seam is removed in one operation by means of a long working face or wall, thus the name. The workings advance (or retreat) in a continuous line which may be several hundreds of yards in length. The space from which the coal has been removed (the gob, goaf, or waste) is either allowed to collapse (caving) or is completely or partially filled or stowed with stone and debris. The stowing material is obtained from any dirt in the seam and from the ripping operations on the roadways to gain height. Stowing material is sometimes brought down from the surface and packed by hand or by mechanical means.
Low Ash Fusion– Coal that when burned typically produces ash that has a melting point below 2,450 degrees Fahrenheit.
Low Coal – Coal occurring in a thin seam or bed.
Low Sulfur Coal– Coal which, when burned, emits 1.6 pounds or less of sulfur dioxide per million Btus.
Lump Coal – Bituminous coal in the large lumps remaining after a single screening that is often designated by the size of the mesh over which it passes and by which the minimum size lump is determined. Also, the largest marketable size.
Maximum Dilatation – In coking coal, the value of maximum dilatation is 55% minimum. The dilatation value of coal blend depends on the value of maximum dilatation of coal blend components.
Maximum Fluidity– Coking coal has values of maximum fluidity as 600 ddpm minimum. Higher fluidity value gives better flowability in the coking ovens of a battery.
Mean Maximum Reflectance (MMR) – It is the most important property of coking coal. The MMR values in coking coal vary in a range of 0.85% to 1.35%. Soft coking coal has lower MMR while hard coking coal has higher MMR.
Metallurgical Coal– The various grades of coal suitable for carbonization to make coke for steel manufacture. Also known as “met” coal, it possesses four important qualities: volatility, which affects coke yield; the level of impurities, which affects coke quality; composition, which affects coke strength; and basic characteristics, which affect coke oven safety. Met coal has a particularly high Btu, but low ash content.
Metric Ton – A unit of mass and weight that equals 1,000 kilograms or 2,204.6 avoirdupois pounds; abbreviation, MT.
Mine Car – Cars which are loaded at production points and hauled to the pit bottom or surface in a train by locomotives or other power. They vary in capacity from 1 to 12 tons and are either of wood or steel construction or combinations of both.
Mine Foreman – The person charged with the responsibility of the general supervision of the underground workings of a mine and the persons employed therein. In certain states, the mine foreman is designated as the mine manager.
Mine Inspector – One who checks mines to determine the safety condition of working areas, equipment, ventilation, and electricity, and to detect fire and dust hazards.
Miner – One who mines; as (1) one engaged in the business or occupation of getting ore, coal, precious substances, or other natural substances out of the earth; (2) a machine for automatic mining (as of coal); and (3) a worker on the construction of underground tunnels and shafts (as for roads, railways, waterways).
Mineral – An inorganic compound occurring naturally in the earth’s crust, with a distinctive set of physical properties, and a definite chemical composition.
Mineral Rights – The ownership of the minerals under a given surface, with the right to enter thereon, mine, and remove them. It may be separated from the surface ownership, but, if not so separated by distinct conveyance, the latter includes it.
Open-Cut (Pit) Mining – A form of operation designed to extract minerals that lie near the surface. Waste, or overburden, is first removed, and the mineral is broken and loaded, as in a stone quarry. Important chiefly in the mining of ores of iron and copper. The mining of metalliferous ores by surface-mining methods is commonly designated as “open-pit mining” as distinguished from the “strip mining” of coal and the “quarrying” of other nonmetallic materials such as limestone, building stone, etc.
Opening – A short heading driven between two or more parallel headings or levels for ventilation.
Outcrop – Coal that appears at or near the surface.
Overburden– Layers of earth and rock covering a coal seam. In surface mining operations, overburden is removed prior to coal extraction.
Overburden Ratio– The amount of overburden commonly stated in cubic yards that must be removed to excavate one ton of coal.
Permit – As it pertains to mining, a document issued by a regulatory agency that gives approval for mining operations to take place.
Phosphorus – Coking coal should have Phosphorus content limited to 0.1% maximum in as dried condition. Phosphorus is transferred to hot metal in the blast furnace which in turn creates difficulties in dephosphorisation during steel making.
Pillar– An area of coal left to support the overlying strata in a mine; sometimes left permanently to support surface structures.
Pit – Any mine, quarry, or excavation area worked by the open-cut method to obtain material of value.
Pneumoconiosis– A lung disease caused by long-continued inhalation of mineral or metallic dust.
Post – A mine timber, or any upright timber, but more commonly used to refer to the uprights which support the roof cross-pieces. Commonly used in metal mines instead of leg which is the coal miner’s term, especially in the Far West regions of the United States. The support fastened between the roof and floor of a coal seam used with certain types of mining machines or augers. A pillar of coal or ore.
Powdered Coal (Pulverized Coal) – Coal that has been crushed to a fine dust by grinding mills. The latter are often air swept, the velocity of the air being so regulated that particles of coal, when sufficiently reduced, are carried away. Pulverized coal particles of which about 99 percent are below 0.01 inch in diameter will burn very rapidly and efficiently. Low-grade coal may be pulverized and conveyed from the mill by air into the boiler plant.
Power Shovel – An excavating and loading machine consisting of a digging bucket at the end of an arm suspended from a boom, which extends crane-like from that part of the machine which houses the power plant. When digging the bucket moves forward and upward so that the machine does not usually excavate below the level at which it stands.
Preparation Plant– Usually located on a mine site, although one plant may serve several mines. A preparation plant is a facility for crushing, sizing and washing coal to prepare it for use by a particular customer. The washing process has the added benefit of removing some of the coal’s sulfur content.
Probable (Indicated) Reserves– Reserves for which quantity and grade and/or quality are computed from information similar to that used for proven reserves, but the sites for inspection, sampling and measurement are farther apart; therefore, the degree of assurance, although lower than that for proven reserves, is high enough to assume continuity between points of observation.
Proven (Measured) Reserves– Reserves for which (a) quantity is computed from dimensions revealed in outcrops, trenches, workings or drill holes; grade and/or quality are computed from the results of detailed sampling and (b) the sites for inspection, sampling and measurement are spaced so closely and the geologic character is so well defined that size, shape, depth and mineral content of reserves are well established.
Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI)– A system whereby coal is pulverized and injected into blast furnaces in the production of steel and/or steel products.
Ranks Of Coal – The classification of coal by degree of hardness, moisture and heat content. “Anthracite” is hard coal, almost pure carbon, used mainly for heating homes. “Bituminous” is soft coal. It is the most common coal found in the United States and is used to generate electricity and to make coke for the steel industry. “Subbituminous” is a coal with a heating value between bituminous and lignite. It has low fixed carbon and high percentages of volatile matter and moisture. “Lignite” is the softest coal and has the highest moisture content. It is used for generating electricity and for conversion into synthetic gas. In terms of Btu or “heating” content, anthracite has the highest value, followed by bituminous, subbituminous and lignite.
Reclamation– The process of restoring land and the environment to their approximate original state following mining >activities. The process commonly includes “recontouring” or reshaping the land to its approximate original appearance, restoring topsoil and planting native grass and ground covers. Reclamation operations are usually underway before the mining of a particular site is completed. Reclamation is closely regulated by both state and federal law.
Recoverable Reserves– The amount of proven and probable reserves that can actually be recovered from the reserve base taking into account all mining and preparation losses involved in producing a saleable product using existing methods and under current law.
Red Dog – A nonvolatile combustion product of the oxidation of coal or coal refuse. Most commonly applied to material resulting from in situ, uncontrolled burning of coal or coal refuse piles. It is similar to coal ash.
Reserves– That part of a mineral deposit which could be economically and legally extracted or produced at the time of the reserve determination.
Resource (Non-Reserve Coal Deposit)– A coal-bearing body that does not qualify as a commercially viable coal reserve. Resources may be classified as such by either limited property control, geologic limitations, insufficient exploration or other limitations. In the future, it is possible that portions of the resource could be re-classified as reserve if those limitations are removed or mitigated by improving market conditions, additional property control, favorable results of exploration, advances in technology, etc.
Rider – A thin seam of coal overlying a thicker one.
Rock Dusting – The dusting of underground areas with powdered limestone to dilute the coal dust in the mine atmosphere thereby reducing explosion hazards.
Roll – Used to describe minor deformations or dislocations of a coal seam, for example, faults with small displacement to small monoclinal folds, to welts or ridges projecting from either the roof or floor into the coal and to fillings of stream channels or low areas extending downward into the coal.
Roof– The stratum of rock or other minerals above a coal seam; the overhead surface of a coal working place. Same as “top.”
Roof Bolting (Pinning) – A system of roof support in mines. Boreholes from 3 to 8 feet long are drilled upward in the roof and bolts of 1 inch diameter or more are inserted into the holes and anchored at the top by a split cone or similar device. The bolt end protrudes below roof level and is used to support roof bars, girders, or simple steel plates pulled tight up to the roof by a nut on the bolt head. The bolts are put up to a definite pattern. The idea is to clamp together the several roof beds to form a composite beam with a strength considerably greater than the sum of the individual beds acting separately.
Room – A place abutting an entry or airway where coal has been mined and extending from the entry or airway to a face.
Room And Pillar Mining– In the underground room and pillar method of mining, continuous mining machines cut three to nine entries into the coal bed and connect them by driving crosscuts, leaving a series of rectangular pillars, or columns of coal to help support the mine roof and control the flow of air. As mining advances, a grid-like pattern of entries and pillars is formed. Additional coal may be recovered from the pillars as this panel of coal is retreated.
Royalty – The payment of a certain stipulated sum on the mineral produced.
Runoff – That portion of the rainfall that is not absorbed by the strata; is utilized by vegetation or lost by evaporation or may find its way into streams as surface flow.
Sampling – Cutting a representative part of an ore (or coal) deposit, which should truly represent its average value.
Seam – A stratum or bed of coal.
Shoot – To break coal loose from the seam by the use of explosives; loosely used, also as applied to other coal breaking devices.
Shooter – The person who fires a charged hole after satisfying himself/herself that the area is free from firedamp. A shot firer.
Short Ton – A unit of weight that equals 20 short hundredweights or 2,000 avoirdupois pounds. Used chiefly in the United States, in Canada, and in the Republic of South Africa.
Shortwall – The reverse of longwall, frequently used to mean the face of a room. A method of mining in which comparatively small areas are worked separately, as opposed to longwall; for example, room and pillar.
Shot Firer – A person whose special duty is to fire shots or blasts, especially in coal mines. A shot lighter.
Shovel – Any bucket-equipped machine used for digging and loading earthy or fragmented rock materials. There are two types of shovels, the square-point and the round-point. These are available with either long or short handles. The round-point shovel is used for general digging since its forward edge, curved to a point, most readily penetrates moist clays and sands. The square-point shovel is used for shoveling against hard surfaces or for trimming.
Shuttle Car – A vehicle on rubber tires or caterpillar treads and usually propelled by electric motors, electrical energy which is supplied by a diesel-driven generator, by storage batteries, or by a power distribution system through a portable cable. Its chief function is the transfer of raw materials, such as coal and ore, from loading machines in trackless areas of a mine to the main transportation system.
Silt – A fine-grained sediment having a particle size intermediate between that of fine sand and clay.
Slope – The main working gallery or entry of a coal seam which dips at an angle and along which mine cars are hauled. An entrance to a mine driven down through an inclined coal seam; also, a mine having such an entrance.
Slope Mine – A mine with an inclined opening used for the same purpose as a shaft or a drift mine. It resembles a tunnel, a drift, or a shaft, depending on its inclination.
Sludge – Mineral, mud, and slurry too thick to flow. A soft mud, slush, or mire; for example the solid product of a filtration process before drying (filter cake).
Slurry – The fine carbonaceous discharge from a colliery washery. All washeries produce some slurry which must be treated to separate the solids from the water in order to have a clear effluent for reuse or discharge. Also, in some cases, it is economical to extract the fine coal from the effluent.
Spoil Bank – To leave coal and other minerals that are not marketable in the mine.
Spot Market– Sales of coal under an agreement for shipments over a period of one year or less.
Steam Coal– Coal used by power plants and industrial steam boilers to produce electricity or process steam. It generally is lower in Btu heat content and higher in the volatile matter than metallurgical coal.
Stoker Coal – A screen size of coal specifically for use in automatic firing equipment. This coal can be of any rank and the stoker is usually designed to fit the coal available. Factors of importance in the selection of coal for stoker use are: size limits, size consist, uniformity of shipments, coking properties, ash fusion characteristics, ash, sulfur and volatile-matter percentages.
Strip – In coal mining, to remove the earth, rock, and other material from a seam of coal, generally by power shovels. Generally practiced only where the coal seam lies close to the earth’s surface. To remove from a quarry, or other open working, the overlying earth and disintegrated or barren surface rock.
Strip Mine – An opencut mine in which the overburden is removed from a coal bed before the coal is taken out.
Sulfur– One of the elements present in varying quantities in coal that contributes to environmental degradation when coal is burned. Sulfur dioxide is produced as a gaseous by-product of coal combustion.
Sulphur – Sulphur levels in coking coals are to be limited to 0.6% maximum in as dried condition. Higher sulfur results into increase in the sulfur content of hot metal in the blast furnace.
Sulfur Content– Coal is commonly described by its sulfur content due to the importance of sulfur in environmental regulations. “Low sulfur” coal has a variety of definitions but is typically used to describe coal consisting of 1.0% or less sulfur.
Surface Mine– A mine in which the coal lies near the surface and can be extracted by removing overburden.
Surface Mining – The mining in surface excavations. It includes placer mining, mining in open glory-hole or milling pits, mining and removing ore from open cuts by hand or with mechanical excavation and transportation equipment, and the removal of capping or overburden to uncover the ores. Mining at or near the surface. This type of mining is generally done where the overburden can be removed without too much expense. Also called strip mining, placer mining, opencast mining, opencut mining, or open-pit mining.
Surface Rights – The ownership of the surface of land only, where mineral rights are reserved. Those reserved to the owner of the land beneath which ore is being mined. The right of a mineral owner or an oil and gas lessee to use so much of the surface of land as may be reasonably necessary for the conduct of operations under the lease.
Synthetic Fuel (Synfuel)– A solid fuel that is produced by mixing coal and/or coal waste with various additives, causing a chemical change to occur within the original product.
Tipple – Originally the place where the mine cars were tipped and emptied of their coal, and still used in that sense, although now more generally applied to the surface structures of a mine, including the preparation plant and a structure that facilitates the loading of coal into rail cars.
Tons– A “short” or net ton is equal to 2,000 pounds. A “long” or British ton is 2,240 pounds; a “metric” ton is approximately 2,205 pounds. The short ton is the unit of measure referred to in this Form 10-K.
Total Moisture – It is limited to 10% maximum in as received condition. High moisture not only creates handling problem but also lowers available carbon in the coal mix.
Unassigned Reserves– Coal which has not been committed, and which would require new mineshafts, mining equipment, or plant facilities before operations could begin in the property.
Underground Mine– Also known as a “deep” mine. Usually located several hundred feet below the earth’s surface, an underground mine’s coal is removed mechanically and transferred by shuttle car or conveyor to the surface.
Unit Train– A train of a specified number of cars carrying only coal. A typical unit train can carry at least 10,000 tons of coal in a single shipment.
Utility Coal– Coal used by power plants to produce electricity or process steam. It generally is lower in Btu heat content and higher in the volatile matter than metallurgical coal.
Vitrinite – Coking coals have Vitrinite value as 50% minimum. For soft coking coal, the limit of Vitrinite is 45%.
Vitrinite Distribution (V9 – V14) – The value of Vitrinite distribution in coking coal is 70% minimum.
Volatile Matter (VM) – Higher volatile matter in coking coal reduces the yield of metallurgical coke in coke oven battery. The volatile matter in coking coal ranges normally from 20% to 35% in air dried sample.